Listen to short audios with lots of information. 

Each audio addresses a link between reading and writing and incomplete lower brain development. 



We spend lots of money on remedial reading and writing programs.

Yet, we do that without ever first ruling out whether physiological reasons might explain why someone is struggling to read or write.

Sure, if someone has never been exposed to phonics, then a remedial class focusing on decoding skills is going to be helpful. But endless hours of learning phonics will not likely yield positive changes if someone is trying to read with incomplete lower brain development. 

For example, if our midbrain is not fully developed, we may not have good auditory discrimination skills. If so, we may not “hear” the differences between similar short vowel sounds. In such case, attempts to decode words whenever we’re reading or trying to spell words correctly will not go well.

And then what? All those extra remedial hours are just going to result in more frustration and more low self-esteem . . . as that person still continues to struggle when reading and writing with retained primitive reflexes and incomplete lower brain development.




Poor readers are often given advice that’s not helpful.

Without realizing it, well-intentioned people may make matters worse when trying to help kids improve their reading proficiency. To learn more, read the blog post, “Why Poor Readers Get Bad Advice.




A long list of neural connections need to be in place to write with ease.

For example, handwriting that is too dark or too light may be signs of poor proprioception. If this system is not providing the correct feedback, such people will not sense correctly how much pressure is needed to write on the paper.

Or, illegible handwriting can be a sign of one or more retained primitive reflexes. For example, if the Palmar Grasp Reflex is retained, people don’t pass through subsequent natural stages of hand release and finger mobility. These more advanced skills are needed to produce good handwriting.

Retained primitive reflexes may additionally make it challenging to sit and write for any length of time. For example, when the Tonic Neck Reflex is on, there’s an extra gravitational pull to the earth. While that pull is helpful to an infant, it may cause a person with this retained reflex to slouch or put her head on the desk when writing.

Poor eye movement skills may result in errors when copying work and may also explain inconsistent spacing between letters and words.

But most of all, people with retained primitive reflexes, an underdeveloped pons and midbrain, and poor sensory processing are just too preoccupied with survival to pay attention to much else.

Note that survival needs always receive top priority. So, these people are going to struggle with generating creative thoughts and remembering spelling, grammar, and punctuation rules, while also attending to basic survival needs. 

And keep in mind: Even a well-organized brain only has so much working memory available to remember all those rules—while also creating original thoughts. That means a disorganized brain is going to have way, way less working memory available, if any at all, when trying to put thoughts on paper. That’s why many people with retained primitive reflexes and incomplete lower centers of the brain may just avoid writing altogether.